The electronic marketplace poses novel issues for contract law. Contracts created through browsewrap, clickwrap, and shrinkwrap (contracts whose embedded terms are only available after purchase) poorly fit doctrines that emerged from face-to-face offer and acceptance, the mutual execution of a common set of documents, or the rituals of mass market transactions involving physical fine print. Not surprisingly, these contracts of the new electronic marketplace require doctrinal elaboration. Our Article asks not about the specific resolution of new doctrinal challenges, but about how the common law of contracts will be elaborated. Specifically, the Article begins with empirical observations about the domain of all electronic and shrinkwrap contract cases and makes four critical findings. First, we document two shifts: One arises from a steady decline in the number of cases adjudicated in state court relative to federal courts, which by 2015 adjudicate the vast majority of cases. The other stems from a rise in class actions, which is intimately tied to the migration of cases to federal court. The result is that today the vast majority of cases are class actions brought in federal court. The increase in class actions is not surprising given the relatively small stakes of most transactions and the little incentive that creates for individual consumer litigation. The increased dominance of the federal forum is in part likely a reflection of the federalization of class action law under the Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA). Second, the consequence of the dominance of the federal forum is that the common law is being elaborated in federal court in suits arising under diversity jurisdiction. In turn, those federal courts are largely bereft of any state law moorings as they develop the common law of the electronic marketplace. Erie Railroad v. Tompkins notwithstanding, the common law is driven by federal court decisions, building incrementally on each other rather than state law. Third, the development of common law in federal court means that there is no apex court that can define conclusively the law of any jurisdiction. Diversity jurisdiction allows federal courts to predict how they believe state common law would develop, but binds no state courts in the affected jurisdiction, and does not even bind federal courts in the same Circuit putatively applying the law of another state. Rather than the law resolving hierarchically, we identify a “tournament effect” in which the law settles on one or a few influential decisions, regardless of the state law that the case may have arisen under. Finally, we conjecture that the use of contractual clauses compelling arbitration and forbidding claim aggregation may have affected the number of cases being adjudicated in court and, consequently, depressed the development of publicly-available law in this area.
Date of Authorship for this Version
Issacharoff, Sam and Marotta-Wurgler, Florencia, "The Hollowed Out Common Law" (2018). New York University Law and Economics Working Papers. 460.