Document Type



The number of developing countries that have adopted a competition law has grown exponentially over the past two decades. Yet the mere adoption of a competition law is a necessary but not sufficient condition for it to be part of market reform. Just as ecological conditions determine the ability of a flower to bloom, so do some preconditions affect the ability to apply a competition law effectively. This study seeks to identify the ecology of antitrust in developing countries: the soil, sun, water and pesticides of competition law adoption and enforcement. In particular, it analyzes the socio-economic ideology (soil), the institutional and organizational conditions (sun and water), and the political economy conditions (pesticides) that are necessary for competition law to bloom. It does so based on a theoretical framework as well as by analyzing the experiences of developing countries in applying competition laws.

Date of Authorship for this Version

June 2004


law and economics, antitrust, competition policy, economic development, political economy